Odžak

In this article, we are going to explore the fascinating world of Odžak. From its impact on today's society to its relevance in history, Odžak has captivated the attention of many people over the years. Through detailed analysis, we will examine the different facets of Odžak, unraveling its mysteries and discovering its true meaning. With a critical and objective perspective, we will immerse ourselves in the multiple dimensions of Odžak, seeking to understand its importance and influence in various spheres of life. So get ready for an exciting journey as we delve deeper into the topic of Odžak and discover everything it has to offer.
Odžak
Оџак
Location of Odžak within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Location of Odžak within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Odžak is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Odžak
Odžak
Coordinates: 45°0′38″N 18°19′35″E / 45.01056°N 18.32639°E / 45.01056; 18.32639
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
EntityFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Canton Posavina
Geographical regionPosavina
Government
 • Municipal mayorNada Ćulap (HDZ BiH)
Area
 • Town and municipality118 km2 (46 sq mi)
Population
 (2013 census)
 • Town and municipality18,821
 • Density180/km2 (500/sq mi)
 • Urban
8,259
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code+387 31
Websiteodzak.ba

Odžak (Serbian Cyrillic: Оџак) is a town and municipality located in Posavina Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in the northern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, near the river Sava, 10 km (6.2 mi) from the border with Croatia. The name is derived from Turkish Ocak, during its time as a frontier town of the Ottoman Empire, and means "fireplace" in Turkish and "chimney" in modern Bosnian.

The town of Odžak is notable for being the battlegrounds of the last battle in Europe of World War II, fought between the Croatian Ustaše and Yugoslav Partisans.

History

Roman & Medieval era

During the Roman era, there was a settlement and a fortress about 670 meters long in the area of the Odžak municipality, discovered by Karlo Mać. These are the remains of a large Roman city named Ad Basante (near Bosna). At that time, the Bosna River flowed beside today's mosque, and the city was right on the shore. It was necessary for the Romans because, in this area, from 6 to 9 AD, there was a war between the Illyrian tribes and Roman legions. The Illyrian tribe Breuci lived in the Posavina area. They, under Baton, rose from the Fruška Gora to the Adriatic Sea, and the Romans said these were the toughest campaigns for them since the Punic Wars. From the Tabula Peutingeriana, a map marking the routes and postal stations from Rome to Constantinople, it is visible that there was a route that passed from Slavonski Brod across Vučjak, and its remains are still in the Jošik area. The road ended in Soli (today's Tuzla).

The Huns passed this way during their migration into Europe and burned the city to the ground. After the Slavs settled in Europe and defeated the Avars, a settlement named Radunjevac was established. It was not as large as the Roman one, but gradually expanded. Nearby, Dobor Grad was founded as the gateway to Bosnia to protect the route along the river valley. It was the scene of frequent battles between the Hungarians and the local Bosnian nobility.

Ottoman era

The current city of Odžak is mentioned in historical records from 1593 as a settlement and fortress. By this point, the settlement was now under Ottoman control. That year, by the Sultan's decree, the odžakluk was introduced in Bosnia with the right of inheritance, which was awarded to commanders of the Turkish army. Miralem-beg was given this area as an odžak, a possession, and he built a small fortress using the remains of the old Roman city. After his death, his son Ibrahim inherited this property, and at that time, Odžak represented a larger settlement and border fortress with a small number of border guards.

Historical records state that the Austrian army crossed the Sava river and conquered Odžak several times until the signing of the Treaty of Belgrade in 1739, when a new border of Bosnia along the Sava River was established. For the next 100 years, Odžak spent in peace, cultural, and economic progress. The urban structure of the city was based on the principle of organizing residential groups, mahalas, connected with business zones. A wooden mosque, called Drvenija, was also built.

In 1836, the Posavina Rebellion (Jovica Ilić's) erupted, during which Odžak was burned and its population nearly halved. Some of the odžakluks of Husein captain were also burned. The Drvenija mosque in Odžak was burned, and it is not known whether it was ever rebuilt. At that time, Odžak transformed from a large kasaba into a neglected settlement.

Austro-Hungarian Empire

With the establishment of Austro-Hungarian authority in 1878 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a new period for Odžak began. A new capitalist way of economy and a new way of building, which involves the construction of high buildings where business space on the ground floor is combined with residential space on the upper floors, were introduced. Buildings were constructed with solid material, brick, according to new regulations that introduced street and building line regulations. The Austro-Hungarian period was a time of intensive construction, satisfying both the needs of the authorities and the population. The population engaged in agriculture, livestock breeding, production, and processing of plums, which were dried and exported to Austria and Czechia. During this period, the Administrative building or Beledija, was completed in 1903, as evidenced by the inscription above the entrance doors.

Yugoslavia

After World War I, the town and the rest of Bosnia would join the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). However, during World War II, the town would come under the occupation of the Ustashe. Towards the end of the war, the town would become known as the site of the last battle of the war in Europe, in which the Ustashe was defeated and destroyed by the Partisans. For the next few decades, the town would remain stable, however it would suffer greatly during the Yugoslav Wars, in which Yugoslavia collapsed. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Odžak began on April 21, 1992, when Serbian forces targeted the city with 32 rockets, killing four citizens of Odžak. On July 13 of the same year, fighters of the 102nd Odžak Brigade retreated towards Bosanski Brod, and enemy forces took over Odžak. According to the Dayton Peace Agreement of 1995, Odžak was placed under the administration of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Before withdrawing in February 1996, Serbian military and paramilitary formations destroyed one mosque and seven Catholic churches.

Geography

The Odžak municipality is located in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina, in a triangle enclosed to the east by the lowest part of the Bosna river, to the north by the Sava river, and to the southwest by the Vučjak mountain. The northern border of the municipality coincides with the state borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Croatia. To the east of Odžak is the municipality of Bosanski Šamac, to the south the municipality of Modriča, and to the west the municipality of Vukosavlje. The area of the municipality is predominantly flat, with slight undulations on the slopes of Vučjak in the western part. The highest point of the Odžak municipality is Kadar peak, which is located at 204 meters above sea level.

Demographics

Population

Population of settlements – Odžak municipality[citation needed]
Year 1971 1981 1991 2013
Total 25,901 27,895 28,568 18,821
Donja Dubica 3,254 1,472
Donji Svilaj 1,576 1,107
Gornja Dubica 1,596 918
Gornji Svilaj 1,810 673
Novi Grad 1,907 362
Novo Selo 2,669 1,605
Odžak 6,064 7,634 8,987 8,259
Posavska Mahala 1,199 849
Potočani 1,822 1,332
Prud 1,293 941
Vrbovac 1,695 1,015

Ethnic composition

Ethnic composition – Odžak town[citation needed]
2013 1991 1981 1971
Total 8,259 9,386 7,634 6,064
Bosniaks 6,185 6,205 5,347 4,760
Croats 1,682 1,404 950 751
Others 311 359 85 48
Serbs 81 599 470 372
Yugoslavs 819 740 81
Montenegrins 15 11
Albanians 14 27
Slovenes 5 2
Hungarians 5 10
Macedonians 3 2
Ethnic composition – Odžak municipality[citation needed]
2013 1991 1981 1971
Total 21,289 30,056 27,895 25,901
Croats 11,621 16,338 15,430 14,995
Bosniaks 6,220 6,220 5,371 4,777
Serbs 582 5,667 5,361 5,881
Others 340 684 376 97
Albanians 48 21 28
Roma 8
Montenegrins 1 28 15
Slovenes 1 8 3
Yugoslavs 1,147 1,276 85
Macedonians 13 5
Hungarians 11 15

Culture

Currently, two cultural associations operate in the city of Odžak, "Cultural and Artistic Society Preporod" and "Cultural and Artistic Society Napredak". These two cultural societies organize numerous cultural events in the city of Odžak every year.

The cultural event "Musa's Days" is held in honor of the birth of the prominent Bosnian-Herzegovinian poet Musa Ćazim Ćatić. The Cultural and Artistic Society Preporod and the Odžak radio station organize this event every year, lasting from March 12 to April 6, from the birth and death dates of Musa Ćazim Ćatić. As part of this event, a literary competition for high school and elementary school students from Odžak is held, along with a drama performance about the life and work of Musa Ćazim Ćatić, and numerous sports and music events.

Besides Musa's Days, Odžak also annually hosts a cultural event called Posavsko Kolo. This is one of the largest events in the Posavina Canton, celebrated around the feast of the Assumption of Mary, and involves a large number of cultural and artistic societies from all parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. The event features a folklore review, numerous music performances, sports competitions, a livestock fair, art exhibitions, a kulen sausage festival, a motorcycle rally, etc.

As part of the Posavsko Kolo event, a traditional gathering of Odžak citizens and the Bosnian-Herzegovinian diaspora called "At the Gateway of Bosnia" is also held. This event takes place at the beginning of August on the main square in Odžak, in front of the old Municipality building, and is unique because many Odžak residents living abroad return to the city during its celebration.

A significant social event in Odžak is also the celebration of the Hijri year, as the central event marking the New Muslim Year in the Tuzla Mufti district and Bosnia and Herzegovina is organized in Odžak every year.

Apart from public festivities in the town square and religious ceremonies in the mosque, the new year celebration is also filled with theater performances by cultural centers from Tuzla, Zenica, Tešanj, and other Bosnian-Herzegovinian cities.

The list of national monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the Odžak municipality includes the following monument:

The Municipal Building (Beledija or Small City Hall) in Odžak (historic building).

Economy

Before the Breakup of Yugoslavia, over 5,000 people were employed primarily in industry and agriculture.[citation needed] The largest industrial facilities were Strolit with over 700 employees, Energoinvest, Vuntex, and Borovo.

Sports

Besides the volleyball club, the Odžak Basketball Club, founded in 1980, also shows outstanding results. As in the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina, football is popular in Odžak, and the Football Club "Odžak 102" competes in the Second Football League of FBiH, North group.

Several sports clubs operate in Odžak, with the Volleyball Club Napredak standing out the most, achieving commendable results in all categories and age groups in a relatively short time.

Several memorial tournaments are held every year, including the Mehmed Ribić - Meho Memorial Tournament, the Bahrija Šogorović - Šiš Memorial Tournament, and the Amir Jupić - Pidžama Memorial Tournament. FK Jedinstvo Odžak was founded in 1945.

Attractions

In the center of Odžak, one of the protected cultural monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina is located, namely the Beledija, or the small city hall (municipal building) built in 1903 by the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

Notable people

References

  1. ^ "Naseljena Mjesta 1991/2013" (in Bosnian). Statistical Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved December 19, 2021.
  2. ^ "Last Battle of World War II in Europe Fought in Odzak/Croatia". 27 May 2015.

External links